Since coronavirus emerged in December 2019, humankind has faced a deadly crisis. Health experts globally, including medical scientists, pharmacists, and researchers, have responded by conducting extensive and fast paced research work and experiments to get a vaccine that would save humankind. We must applaud our researchers and medical experts, for their incredible job, having a vaccine just a year down the line since the onset of the pandemic. Historically, most vaccinces taken between 5 to 10 years for invention, discovery, and testing, mostly done to reduce the failure rates (WHO, 2020). However, dedication, global organization, coordination, and efforts to battle the Coronavirus pandemic has helped us break history.
Who should/not get the vaccine?
According to various health officials, a report updated on 16th December 2020 by WHIO staff and Kyla Courvell revealed how the immunodeficient people were confirmed not to get the coronavirus vaccine. People suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis, Crohn’s disease, colitis, and other immunosuppressing diseases may have a drug interaction between the coronavirus vaccine and the other drugs they are taking. Health officials confirmed the vaccine causes a quick flare in the system, resulting in a rapid response of the immunity. On 17th December 2020, the UT southwestern medical Center reported that pregnant and breastfeeding women were not included in the first Pfizer vaccine trial. The issues remain a debate in the Food Drug Association panel. Pregnant women are at a higher risk of contracting Covid 19; the benefits are more significant than the risk even though the vaccine administration is not yet proved. The Centre for Disease Control expresses that protective antibodies transfer from the mother to child through breast milk from studies on previous vaccines. The Pfizer vaccine is not recommended for children under the age of 16. Increased research has shown that the vaccine is not recommended for people with allergic reactions observed from any previous injectable vaccine or any coronavirus vaccine component. These people are asked to seek the doctor’s advice. As the virus distribution starts in days, everyone with no complication and 16 years and above is eligible to take the Pfizer Corona Virus vaccine.
How the Pfizer and Moderna Vaccine works
The Pfizer vaccine uses cutting edge technology through the introduction of genetic material; mRNA in the body. The genetic material introduces the coronavirus “spike” protein instruction that activates the immune pathways to protect the body against a virus encounter. According to the CDC, the introduction of mRNA will not interfere with an individual’s DNA. The mRNA won’t reach the nucleus but join the natural immunity to develop more substantial protection from Covid-19 disease. The vaccine is given in two doses, 21 days apart. WHO recommends no switching of vaccine types; for instance, if the first dose was Pfizer, the second dose should not be. The health line (16th Dec 2020) reports on the Pfizer vaccine’s side effects; 84% of the 18,801 participants in the first trial got a reaction at the injection site, pain, firmness, redness, a little swelling, muscle pain, headache, or fatigue. On 18th Dec 2020, the FDA proved the safety of using the Moderna vaccine through the vaccine advisers, to be used alongside Pfizer, and the distribution is set to begin in days. Finalization and release have been confirmed by the FDA commissioner, Dr. Peter Marks. The Moderna vaccine composition, structure, design, efficacy, and safety has been proved by the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) of the FDA to be similar to the Pfizer vaccine. Although the Moderna vaccine requires two doses just like the Pfizer, the second Moderna dose is given after 28 days, unlike the Pfizer second dose. Unlike Pfizer, whose single dose has a 30 microgram vaccine, the Moderna dose contains a 100 microgram vaccine. The Moderna vaccine authorizes the administration to people not below 18 years, although there is ongoing testing on the vaccine among 12-17-year-olds.
Vaccine among covid-19 recovered patients
Covid 19 reinfection is possible; therefore, patients with a Covid 19 infection history need the vaccine. A report on 15th Dec 2020 approved the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ recommendation that patients with Covid 19 should wait until 90 days after diagnosis to get the vaccine. This is due to the natural immunity caused in the recovery process that lasts for three months from diagnosis. Covid 19 infected patients shouldn’t get the vaccine; therefore, the FDA recommends a PCR or an antigen test before administering the vaccine. These tests will show the coronavirus status even during the disease’s window stage. Administering the vaccine to a patient currently having the Covid 19 disease may not provide immunity. After vaccination, the body needs a few weeks to build immunity; therefore, Covid 19 prevention measures should still be adhered to, even after vaccination.
The acceptance and effectiveness of the vaccines recommended by the FDA will be achieved through creating awareness and conducting more experiments as evidence to the public. Increased efficacy will lower the government’s burden to persuade their citizens to take up the vaccine. Scientists and researchers need to continue with research to develop these vaccines to reduce unanticipated health side effects. An increase in the perceived risk of covid-19 is positively related to the acceptance of the vaccine.